In a recent edition of the soy report written by Dr. Shawn Conley and Damon Smith, they strongly advise growers start managing for Fusarium Head Blight now before planting the 2016/2017 crop.
While most Wisconsin growers avoided problems in 2016, many farmers didn’t plant a single acre due to problems with dockage and rejection in 2014 and 2015. That’s a lot of acres sitting empty. And with forethought, FHB can be managed.
So, before you plant a single seed, here are five factors Dr. Conley and Smith urge you to consider. Given the technical nature of their advice, it’s presented here as they wrote it:
- Crop rotation matters. Data from our long-term rotation studies indicate that wheat following soybean provides the greatest yields. The next best options are wheat following corn silage (6.5% less) then corn for grain (21% less). Wheat following alfalfa or another leguminous crop are also good options, though the N credits following alfalfa may best be served going to corn. Furthermore, background fungal pressure (residue on and in soil) from the FHB fungus will be greater following corn then soybean or another legume, however know that spores that infect your wheat crop can arrive from outside the field. Please click to see more information on the Top 8 Recommendations for Winter Wheat Establishment in 2016.
- Variety selection matters. Data from our 2015 and 2016 WI Winter Wheat Performance Test shows variable yield and disease performance among the varieties listed. Select those varieties that have both good to excellent FHB (2015) and Stripe Rust (2016) resistance and high yield. When evaluating disease resistance, low numbers for both incidence and severity can be helpful, but the major focus should be placed on incidence (measure of the number of symptomatic plants in a stand).
- Application timing matters. One of the biggest challenges year in and year out is improper fungicide application timing. Our data suggests that on susceptible (Hopewell) or moderately susceptible varieties (Kaskaskia) equal efficacy of the fungicide Prosaro at a rate of 6.5 fl oz/acre can be achieved when applied between Feekes 10.5.1 (anthesis) and 5 days after anthesis. Given the variability of head emergence and anthesis across a landscape it may prove best to wait a few days until the whole field is flowering than to apply too soon. If the extruded anthers have turned from yellow to white across the whole field then you are likely too late. Remember it roughly takes a wheat head 7 days to completely self-pollinate.
- Choose the right fungicide class. Make sure you use the appropriate fungicide product and class to manage FHB. The label for products containing strobilurin active ingredients (FRAC group 11) ends prior to flowering. Late application can actually lead to increased mycotoxin levels. Triazole containing products (FRAC group 3) are recommended for FHB control. For a list of products and efficacy ratings, visit the Field Crops Fungicide Information Page.
- Harvest timing and flash drying. The word on the street is that if FHB appears to be a problem in 2017 elevators will push growers to harvest early (18% moisture or higher) and subsequently dry grain to mitigate mycotoxin levels. While drying grain to 13% or less moisture is a good storage practice, know this process may kill the pathogen but any mycotoxin levels already in the grain will not dissipate. Vomitoxin is a very stable molecule and IS NOT degraded by heat, freezing, or drying.
So there you have it. Good luck and good planting.